Universal accommodations are those strategies, technologies or adjustments that enable a student to reach prescribed outcomes and can be used as needed. Universal accommodations do not necessitate an ILP. Justifiable accommodations are documented strategies, technologies or adjustments without which the student would not be able to access the curriculum. These accommodations are documented within an ILP or CAP.

Universal and justified accommodations can be classified under the following domains

  • Presentation

  • Response

  • Setting 

  • Timing/scheduling 

Accommodations may include: 

  • Reading directions aloud

  • Preferred seating

  • Individual or small group testing environment 

  • Extended time for assignments and exams 

  • Extended breaks

  • Use of assistive technology such as a speech-to-text device

  • Use of a scribe

  • Alternative format for demonstrating understanding of material 

  • Instructions broken down into sequential steps 

  • Use of graphic organizers/scaffolds 


A modification is a change made to instruction and or assessment that may adjust the grade level learning or assessment expectations.  Most often, the resulting product is not the same as the student product without modification.  Modifications will be documented in an ILP and on the student's report card. 

Classroom Accommodation Plan: (CAP) 

A document which identifies recommended accommodations for a student to have access to the grade level expected outcomes.  

Individual Learning Plan: (ILP) 

A document which identifies areas in the school setting in which specific goals are to be worked towards by the student.  This will outline supports provided by the teaching team and family that will support the student in reaching grade level outcomes, including academic goals, social/emotional goals and or behavioral goals. This plan will identify recommended accommodations and modifications and is based on class performance, teaching team input, family input and often a diagnosed disability. Any modifications made will be noted in an ILP and in the student's report cards. This plan will be revisited at a minimum of every school year. 

In the Diploma Program (DP), all documentation regarding accommodations required will be forwarded to the IBO, College Board, or ACT. The external agency will ultimately approve or not any accommodations for external tests and exams. IBO published documents such as “Candidates with assessment access requirements” (2013) along with recommendations in external psycho-educational evaluation inform accommodations in a student’s CAP or IEP in the MS and US.